Current Research Projects at Gray Matters

There are those who use research, and those who contribute to it. At Gray Matters, we are proud to do both.

Concussion

Our pioneering qEEG concussion baseline program is gathering unprecedented data, which we are de-identifying and sharing with
other researchers.

This data has already been used by Neuroguide to improve the Network Injury Index.

Autism

Gray Matters has commenced a ground-breaking study combining audio entrainment with neurofeedback to target specific brain networks in autistic children.

Preliminary studies show great promise. A new round of study participants will be enrolled soon.

Peer-Reviewed Publications

qEEG Brain Mapping
Neurofeedback
Comparisons of Neurofeedback with Stimulant Medication
qEEG Brain Mapping
QEEG-Guided Neurofeedback: New Brain-Based Individualized Evaluation and Treatment for Autism
By James Neubrander, MD, Michael Linden, PhD, Jay Gunkelman, QEEGD, and Cynthia Kerson, PhD

ABSTRACT
QEEG-guided neurofeedback is based on normalizing dysregulated brain regions that relate to specific clinical presentation. With ASD, this means that the approach is specific to each individual’s QEEG subtype patterns and presentation. The goal of neurofeedback with ASD is to correct amplitude abnormalities and balance brain functioning, while coherence neurofeedback aims to improve the connectivity and plasticity between brain regions. This tailored approach has implications that should not be underestimated. . . . Clinicians, including the authors, have had amazing results with ASD, including significant speech and communication improvements, calmer and less aggressive behavior, increased attention, better eye contact, and improved socialization. Many of our patients have been able to reduce or eliminate their medications after completion of QEEG-guided neurofeedback.

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Functional Imaging based on swLORETA and phase synchronization
Ernesto Palmero Soler

ABSTRACT
The tomographic properties of swLORETA and sLORETA were compared using both simulated and real data. In the simulation studies, the reconstruction of single and multiple current dipoles was simulated varying their position and orientation across the source space and taking into account the presence of noise. The real data was obtained from healthy subjects who performed a classical spatial attention experiment. The tests performed demonstrated that the resulting algorithm is not only efficient but also accurate as demonstrated by the analysis of a spatial attention experiment.

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swLORETA: a novel approach to robust source localization and synchronization tomography
Ernesto Palmero-Soler, Kevin Dolan, Volker Hadamschek, and Peter A Tass

ABSTRACT
Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) is a widely used technique for source localization. However, this technique still has some limitations, especially under realistic noisy conditions and in the case of deep sources. To overcome these problems, we present here swLORETA, an improved version of sLORETA, obtained by incorporating a singular value decomposition-based lead field weighting. We show that the precision of the source localization can further be improved by a tomographic phase synchronization analysis based on swLORETA. The phase synchronization analysis turns out to be superior to a standard linear coherence analysis, since the latter cannot distinguish between real phase locking and signal mixing.

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Neurofeedback
Efficacy of Neurofeedback Treatment in ADHD: The Effects on Inattention, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity
by Arns M, de Ridder S, Strehl U, Breteler M and Coenen A
Journal of Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, July, 2009

ABSTRACT
Since the first reports of neurofeedback treatment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in 1976, many studies have investigated the effects of neurofeedback on different symptoms of ADHD such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. This technique is also used by many practitioners, but the question as to the evidence-based level of this treatment is still unclear. In this study selected research on neurofeedback treatment for ADHD was collected and a meta-analysis was performed.

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Place of EEG Biofeedback for ADHD
by Hirshberg LM
Expert Review Neurotherapeutics, 7(4), 315-319

ABSTRACT
Although methodological weaknesses limited early research into electroencephalograpic (EEG) biofeedback (EBF) for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperacticity disorder (ADHD), recent stronger randomized controlled trials have provided substantial, but not yet conclusive, empirical support. Additional support is found in research on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) feedback and brain-computer interface (BCI) models which involve feedback-guided learning to achieve control over neural activation.

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In-School Neurofeedback Training for ADHD: Sustained Improvements From a Randomized Control Trial
by Naomi J. Steiner, Elizabeth C. Frenette, Kirsten M. Rene, Robert T. Brennan, Ellen C. Perrin

ABSTRACT
This randomized controlled trial included a large sample of elementary school students with ADHD who received in-school computer attention training with neurofeedback or cognitive training. Students who received neurofeedback were reported to have fewer ADHD symptoms 6 months after the intervention.

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Electroencephalographic Biofeedback in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
by Monastra VJ, Lynn S, Linden M, Lubar JF, Gruzelier J, LaVaque TJ

ABSTRACT
Historically, pharmacological treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been considered to be the only type of interventions effective for reducing the core symptoms of this condition. However, during the past three decades, a series of case and controlled group studies examining the effects of EEG biofeedback have reported improved attention and behavioral control, increased cortical activation on quantitative electroencephalographic examination, and gains on tests of intelligence and academic achievement in response to this type of treatment.

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Electroencephalographic Biofeedback (Neurotherapy) as a Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Rationale and Empirical Foundation
by Monastra VJ

ABSTRACT
During the past three decades, electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback has emerged as a nonpharmacologic treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This intervention was derived from operant conditioning studies that demonstrated capacity for neurophysiologic training in humans and other mammals and targets atypical patterns of cortical activation that have been identified consistently in neuroimaging and quantitative EEG studies of patients diagnosed with ADHD.
Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Neurotherapy
by Nash JK

ABSTRACT 
Significant public health concerns exist regarding our current level of success in treating ADHD. Medication management is very helpful in 60-70% of patients. Side effects, lack of compliance and the fact that stimulant medications cannot be given late in the day limit the benefits largely to school hours.

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Review of the Literature Regarding the Efficacy of Neurofeedback in the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
by Lingenfelter JE

ABSTRACT 
The following is a review of the most recent literature regarding the efficacy of EEG Neurofeedback in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders.

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Update on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
by Campbell Daley K

ABSTRACT 
In her recent paper, Update on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, published in Current Opinion in Pediatrics, Katie Campbell Daley reviewed the research and practice standards on treatment of ADHD. Dr. Campbell is on the staff of the Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston and in the Department of Pediatrics of the Harvard Medical School.

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EEG Biofeedback in the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
by Friel PN
Alternative Medicine Review, Volume 12, #2, June, 2007, pp146-151

ABSTRACT
Electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback, also known as neurofeedback, is a promising alternative treatment for patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). EEG biofeedback therapy rewards scalp EEG frequencies that are associated with relaxed attention, and suppresses frequencies associated with under- or over-arousal.

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Why Neurofeedback and Biofeedback are Effective Means to Assess and Impact Behavior
By: Robert W. Thatcher, Ph.D.

ABSTRACT

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Comparisons of Neurofeedback with Stimulant Medication
A Comparison of EEG Biofeedback and Psychostimulants in Treating Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders
by Rossiter TR and La Vaque TJ


ABSTRACT
The study compared treatment programs with EEG biofeedback or stimulants as their primary components. An EEG group (EEG) was matched with a stimulant group (MED) by age, IQ, gender and diagnosis. The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) was administered pre and post treatment.
The Effects of Stimulant Therapy, EEG Biofeedback, and Parenting Style on the Primary Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder [abs.]
by Monastra VJ, Monastra DM, George S


ABSTRACT
One hundred children, ages 6-19, who were diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), either inattentive or combined types, participated in a study examining the effects of Ritalin, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of ADHD.

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Neurofeedback Treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children: A Comparison with Methylphenidate [abs.]
by Fuchs T, Birbaumer N, Lutzenberger W, Gruzelier J. H., & Kaiser J


ABSTRACT
Clinical trials have suggested that neurofeedback may be efficient in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We compared the effects of a 3-month electroencephalographic feedback program providing reinforcement contingent on the production of cortical sensorimotor rhythm (12-15 Hz) and betal activity (15-18 Hz) with stimulant medication.

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The Effectiveness of Neurofeedback and Stimulant Drugs in Treating AD/HD: Part I. Review of Methodological Issues [abs.]
by Rossiter T.R.


ABSTRACT
The paper examines major criticisms of AD/HD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) neurofeedback research using T. R. Rossiter and T. J. La Vaque (1995) as an exemplar and discusses relevant aspects of research methodology.

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The Effectiveness of Neurofeedback and Stimulant Drugs in Treating AD/HD: Part II. Replication [abs.]
by Rossiter T.R.


ABSTRACT
This study replicated T. R. Rossiter and T. J. La Vaque (1995) with a larger sample, expanded age range, and improved statistical analysis. Thirty-one ADIHD patients who chose stimulant drug (MED) treatment were matched with 31 patients who chose a neurofeedback (EEG) treatment program.

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